Sanger in July 2006
Lawrence Mark Sanger
July 16, 1968
Bellevue, Washington, U.S.
|Education||Reed College (BA)|
Ohio State University (MA, PhD)
|Occupation||Internet project developer|
|Known for||Co-founding Wikipedia|
Lawrence Mark Sanger (//; born July 16, 1968) is an American internet project developer and co-founder of the internet encyclopedia Wikipedia, for which he coined the name and wrote much of its original governing policy. Sanger has also worked on other online educational websites such as Nupedia, Citizendium, Everipedia, and the Encyclosphere.
While studying at college, Sanger developed an interest in using the internet for education and joined the online encyclopedia Nupedia as editor-in-chief in 2000. Disappointed with the slow progress of Nupedia, Sanger proposed using a wiki to solicit and receive articles to put through Nupedia's peer-review process; this change led to the development and launch of Wikipedia in 2001. Sanger served as Wikipedia's community leader in Wikipedia's early stages but became increasingly disillusioned with the project and left it in 2002.
Since Sanger's departure from Wikipedia, he has been critical of the project, arguing that despite its merits, Wikipedia lacks credibility due to a lack of respect for expertise and authority. He founded Citizendium in 2006 to compete with Wikipedia. Sanger's status as a co-founder of Wikipedia has been questioned by fellow co-founder Jimmy Wales but is generally accepted.
Besides the Internet, Sanger's interests have been focused mainly on philosophy—in particular epistemology, early modern philosophy, and ethics. He taught philosophy at his alma mater Ohio State University.
Early life and education
Lawrence Mark Sanger was born in Bellevue, Washington, on July 16, 1968. His father Gerry was a biologist and his mother raised the children. When he was seven years old, his family moved to Anchorage, Alaska, where he grew up. He was interested in philosophical topics at an early age.
Sanger graduated from high school in 1986 and attended Reed College, majoring in philosophy. In college he became interested in the Internet and its potential as a publishing outlet. Sanger set up a listserver as a medium for students and tutors to meet for tutoring and "to act as a forum for discussion of tutorials, tutorial methods, and the possibility and merits of a voluntary, free network of individual tutors and students finding each other via the Internet for education outside the traditional university setting". He started and moderated a philosophy discussion list, the Association for Systematic Philosophy.
In 1994, Sanger wrote a manifesto for the discussion group:
The history of philosophy is full of disagreement and confusion. One reaction by philosophers to this state of things is to doubt whether the truth about philosophy can ever be known, or whether there is any such thing as the truth about philosophy. But there is another reaction: one may set out to think more carefully and methodically than one's intellectual forebears.
Sanger received a Bachelor of Arts degree in philosophy from Reed in 1991, a Master of Arts from Ohio State University in 1995, and a Doctor of Philosophy from Ohio State University in 2000. Beginning in 1998, he and a friend ran a website called "Sanger and Shannon's Review of Y2K News Reports", a resource for people such as managers of computer systems who were concerned about the year 2000 problem.
Nupedia and Wikipedia
Nupedia was a web-based encyclopedia whose articles were written by volunteer contributors possessing relevant subject matter expertise and reviewed by editors prior to publication, and were licensed as free content. It was conceived by Jimmy Wales and underwritten by his company Bomis. Wales had interacted with Sanger on mailing lists. Sanger had e-mailed Wales and others about a potential "blog" project he had in mind after January 1, 2000, had passed and rendered his Y2K site obsolete. Wales replied with the idea of Nupedia and invited Sanger to join the project, and Sanger was hired as Nupedia's editor-in-chief. Sanger began to oversee Nupedia in February 2000, developing a review process for articles and recruiting editors. Articles were reviewed through Nupedia's e-mail system before being posted on the site. Nupedia made very slow progress and was at a standstill at the end of 2000, causing consternation to Sanger and Wales. In January 2001, Sanger proposed the creation of a wiki to speed article development, resulting in the launch of Wikipedia on January 15, 2001. Wikipedia was initially intended as a collaborative wiki for which the public would write entries that would then be fed into Nupedia's review process but the majority of Nupedia's experts wanted little to do with this project.
The idea of using a wiki came when Sanger met up with his friend Ben Kovitz on January 2, 2001, when Sanger was first introduced to wiki software. Kovitz, whom Sanger had known from philosophy mailing lists, was a computer programmer who had come across Ward Cunningham's Wiki. Sanger was impressed with the possibilities offered by wikis and called Wales, who agreed to try it. Sanger originated the name "Wikipedia", which he later said was "a silly name for what was at first a very silly project".
Within a few days of its launch, Wikipedia had outgrown Nupedia and a small community of editors had gathered. Sanger served as Wikipedia's "chief organizer", running the project and formulating much of the original policy, including "Ignore all rules", "Neutral point of view", "No original research", and "Verifiability". He embraced Wikipedia's encouragement of boldness among its editors, telling users to "not worry about messing up". He also created the concept of "Brilliant prose", which evolved into featured articles as a way to showcase Wikipedia's highest-quality articles.
Sanger later grew disillusioned with Wikipedia, saying by mid-2001 its community was being "overrun" by "trolls" and "anarchist-types", who were "opposed to the idea that anyone should have any kind of authority that others do not". While such issues were not important to Sanger when Wikipedia was a source of articles for Nupedia, as it grew into an independent project he started to become more concerned about the community. Sanger became increasingly disillusioned and frustrated by a Wikipedia user known as "The Cunctator", who would troll Sanger. Sanger responded to these trends by proposing a stronger emphasis on expert editors and individuals with the authority to resolve disputes and enforce the rules. He also asked to be given more respect and deference by Wikipedians, which backfired and led to an increase in friction between him and the community.
Sanger was the only paid editor of Wikipedia. In early 2002, Bomis, which had intended to make Wikipedia profitable from the outset, announced the possibility of placing advertisements on Wikipedia—in part to pay for Sanger's employment— but the project was opposed to any commercialization and the market for internet advertising was small. Bomis stopped funding Sanger's job in February 2002 and he resigned as editor-in-chief of Nupedia and chief organizer of Wikipedia on March 1. Sanger said he ended his participation in Wikipedia and Nupedia as a volunteer because he could not do justice to the tasks as a part-timer; he was also frustrated by sustained content battles and felt he lacked support from Wales.
Sanger attempted to revive Nupedia throughout 2002 as its activity petered out. He tried to find an organization that would take control of it because it appeared Bomis would be unable to manage it and Wales seemed uninterested in it. Sanger later attempted to purchase the domain and other proprietary materials of Nupedia from Bomis. He said Nupedia was allowed to die a slow death and that its demise was not entirely due to the inherent inefficiencies in its review process. Nupedia's server crashed in September 2003 and the site was never relaunched.
Status as Wikipedia co-founder
Sanger's role in founding Wikipedia was the subject of edits by Wales to Wikipedia in 2005, which was followed by discussions within the community. Sanger accused Wales of "rewriting history" by disregarding his involvement; Wales told Wired he only clarified details about Sanger's contribution to the project and removed factual errors, and said he should not have done so. Wales later stated he had initially heard of the wiki concept from Bomis employee Jeremy Rosenfeld rather than Sanger.
On his personal website, Sanger posted several links that supported his role as a co-founder. As early as January 17, 2001, Sanger was noted as "Instigator of Nupedia's wiki" by its chief copyeditor Ruth Ifcher, and he was identified as a co-founder of Wikipedia by September 2001. Sanger has said he organized Wikipedia while Wales was mostly focused on Bomis.com.
Wales devised the idea of an open-source, collaborative encyclopedia that would accept contributions from anyone and invested in it while Sanger was in charge of organizing such an encyclopedia.
Relationship with Wikipedia
Since 2002, Sanger has been critical of Wikipedia's accuracy. In December 2004, he wrote an article for the website Kuro5hin, in which he stated Wikipedia is not perceived as credible among librarians, teachers, and academics because it does not have a formal review process and is "anti-elitist". Shortly after the launch of Citizendium, Sanger again criticized Wikipedia, stating it was "broken beyond repair" and had a range of problems "from serious management problems, to an often dysfunctional community, to frequently unreliable content, and to a whole series of scandals". In September 2009, Sanger said he distanced himself from Wikipedia partly because; "I thought that the project would never have the amount of credibility it could have if it were not somehow more open and welcoming to experts ... The other problem was the community had essentially been taken over by trolls to a great extent. That was a real problem, and Jimmy Wales absolutely refused to do anything about it." Wales responded by stating, "I think very highly of Larry Sanger, and think that it is unfortunate that this silly debate has tended to overshadow his work". In a 2015 interview by Zach Schwartz for Vice, Sanger said; "I think Wikipedia never solved the problem of how to organize itself in a way that didn't lead to mob rule" and that since he left the project, "People that I would say are trolls sort of took over. The inmates started running the asylum."
In April 2010, Sanger sent a letter to the FBI about his concern that Wikimedia Commons was hosting child pornography and later clarified the object of his concern was "obscene visual representations of the abuse of children". Sanger said he felt it was his "civic duty" to report the images. In 2012, Sanger told FoxNews.com he worked with NetSpark to get them to donate or heavily discount its pornographic image filtering technology for use on Wikipedia. NetSpark attempted to contact the Wikimedia Foundation in 2012 but received no response. Critics accused Sanger of having an ulterior motive for reporting the images, noting he was still in charge of the failing Citizendium project and saying publicizing the accusations was unnecessary.
At the Wizards of OS conference in September 2006, Sanger announced the launch of a new wiki-based encyclopedia called Citizendium—short for "citizens' compendium"—as a fork of Wikipedia. The objective of the fork was to address perceived flaws in the way Wikipedia functions; anonymous editing was disallowed and all users were required to use their real names and there was a layer of experts who had extra authority. It was an attempt by Sanger to establish a credible online encyclopedia based on scholarship, aiming to bring more accountability and academic rigor to articles. The site attempted to implement an expert review process and experts tried to reach a decision in disputes that could not be resolved by consensus.
Sanger predicted a rapid increase in Citizendium's traffic at its first anniversary in 2007. After a burst of initial work, however, the site went into decline and most of the experts were not retained. In 2011, Ars Technica reporter Timothy B. Lee said Citizendium was "dead in the water". Lee noted that Citizendium's late start was a disadvantage and that its growth was hindered by an "unwieldy editing model". In 2014, the number of Citizendium contributors was under 100 and the number of edits per day was about "a dozen or so" according to Winthrop University's Dean of Library Services. By August 2016, Citizendium had about 17,000 articles, 160 of which had undergone expert review.
Sanger, who in early 2007 announced he did not intend to head Citizendium indefinitely, effectively ceased to edit it in early 2009, although an announcement confirming this was not made until July 30, 2009, on the Citizendium-l mailing list. He stepped down as editor-in-chief of Citizendium on September 22, 2010, but said he would continue to support the project.
Larry Sanger has been involved with several other online encyclopedia projects. In 2005, he joined the Digital Universe Foundation as Director of Distributed Content Programs. He was a key organizer of the Digital Universe Encyclopedia web project that was launched in early 2006. The Digital Universe encyclopedia recruited recognized experts to write articles and to check user-submitted articles for accuracy. The first part of the project was the expert-written-and-edited Encyclopedia of Earth. Sanger later felt the pace of content production at the Foundation was too slow for him; he proposed open content to help speed development but the proposal was rejected.
Sanger has worked at the WatchKnowLearn project, a non-profit organization that focuses on educating young children using videos and other media on the web. It is funded by grants, philanthropists, and the Community Foundation of Northwest Mississippi. Sanger headed the development of WatchKnowLearn from 2008 to 2010. It consists of a repository of educational videos for kindergarten to the 12th grade. In February 2013, it ranked as the top search result among educational videos on Google's search engine and attracted over six million page views each month. In 2010 and 2011, he continued developing a web-based reading-tutorial application for beginning readers, which was launched in as Reading Bear in 2012. It uses the principles of phonics and multimedia presentations such as videos, PowerPoint presentations, and ebooks to teach pronunciation to children. It also aims to teach the meaning and context of each word.
In February 2013, Sanger announced a project a crowdsourced news portal called Infobitt; saying on Twitter, "My new project will show the world how to crowdsource high-quality content—a problem I've long wanted to solve. Not a wiki". The site, which aimed to be a crowdsourced news aggregator, went online in December 2014 but ran out of money in July 2015.
In September 2017, it was announced that Sanger had become the chief information officer of Everipedia, an open encyclopedia contributed by many editors that uses blockchain technology. That month, Sanger told Inverse Everipedia is "going to change the world in a dramatic way, more than Wikipedia did". Sanger said, "Everipedia is the encyclopedia of everything, where topics are unrestricted, unlike on Wikipedia."
On July 1, 2019, Sanger advocated for a social-media strike to take place on July 4 and 5 to demand the decentralization of social media platforms to their user bases from their top-level management so their users can assert control over their data and privacy.
On October 18, 2019, he announced he had resigned from his position at Everipedia and returned his stock holdings in the company without compensation to establish the Knowledge Standards Foundation and develop the website Encyclosphere. He said of the venture, "We need to do for encyclopedias what blogging standards did for blogs: there needs to be an 'Encyclosphere.' We should build a totally decentralized network, like the Blogosphere—or like email, IRC, blockchains, and the World Wide Web itself."
Philosophy and personal life
Larry Sanger has a doctorate in Philosophy from Ohio State University. His professional interests are epistemology, early modern philosophy, and ethics. Most of Sanger's philosophical work focuses on epistemology; in 2008, he went to University of Oxford to debate the proposal "the internet is the future of knowledge", arguing wikis and blogs are changing the way knowledge is created and distributed.
In February 2000, when he was hired by Wales to develop Nupedia, Sanger moved to San Diego. He was married in Las Vegas in December 2001. In 2005, he and his wife moved to Santa Cruz, California to work for Digital Universe.
Sanger supports the concept of baby reading. He started teaching his son to read before his second birthday and posted videos online to demonstrate this. He is known for his love of Irish traditional music. In December 2010, Sanger said he considered WikiLeaks to be "enemies of the U.S.—not just the government, but the people".
- Academic work
- Epistemic Circularity: An Essay on the Problem of Meta-Justification – doctoral thesis.
- Descartes' methods and their theoretical background – bachelor thesis.
- Why Neutrality?. Ballotpedia, December 2015.
- How and Why I Taught My Toddler to Read (PDF). LarrySanger.org, December 2010.
- Individual Knowledge in the Internet Age. Educause Review, April 2010.
- The Fate of Expertise after Wikipedia (PDF). Episteme – Edinburgh University Press, February 2009.
- Who Says We Know: On The New Politics of Knowledge. Edge Foundation – Edge Reality Club, April 2007.
- Humanity's Coming Enlightenment. (Archived) Edge Foundation – World Question Center, 2007.
- What Strong Collaboration Means for Scholarly Publishing. Keynote at the Annual Meeting of Society for Scholarly Publishing, San Francisco, CA, June 7, 2007.
- How to Think about Strong Collaboration among Professionals. Keynote at the Handelsblatt IT Congress, Bonn, Germany, January 30, 2007.
- Why Make Room for Experts in Web 2.0?. Opening keynote at the SVForum, The Business of New Media, Santa Clara, CA, October 25, 2006.
- on YouTube, video taken from Sanger's official educational YouTube channel, pronunciation confirmed around 0:10, accessed May 7, 2016
- Anderson, p. 20
- Lydgate, Chris (June 2010). "Deconstructing Wikipedia". Reed Magazine. Archived from the original on November 1, 2013. Retrieved November 1, 2013.
- Poe, Marshall (September 2006). "The Hive". The Atlantic Monthly. Archived from the original on November 10, 2006. Retrieved March 25, 2007.
- Roush, Wade (January 1, 2005). "Larry Sanger's Knowledge Free-for-All". Technology Review. Retrieved March 25, 2007.
- Boraas, Alan (September 2, 2006). "Hometown kid an Internet revolutionary". Anchorage Daily News. Retrieved March 25, 2007.
- Sanger, Larry (August 30, 1995). "Tutor-L: Higher education outside the universities". Internet Scout. scout.wisc.edu. Archived from the original on November 23, 2009. Retrieved March 25, 2007.
- Moody, Glyn (July 13, 2006). "This time, it'll be a Wikipedia written by experts". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on February 22, 2007. Retrieved March 25, 2007.
- Lih, p. 33
- Lih, p. 35
- Anderson, pp. 8–9
- Anderson, p. 31
- Anderson, p. 32
- Lih, pp. 37–38
- Lih, p. 38
- Lih, p. 43
- Lih, p. 64
- Anderson, p. 9
- Lih, p. 44
- Lih, pp. 44–45
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- Lih, p. 138
- Lih, p. 112
- Lih, p. 113
- Sanger, Larry (January 22, 2001). "Wikipedia rocks!". Wikimedia Foundation. Wikimedia Foundation. Archived from the original on June 20, 2019. Retrieved August 8, 2019.
- Lih, p. 170
- Waters, Richard (November 10, 2006). "Wikipedia stand-off in search for online truth". Financial Times. Archived from the original on November 15, 2007. Retrieved October 15, 2009.
- Lih, p. 171
- Lih, p. 172
- Sidener, Jonathan (September 23, 2006). "Wikipedia co-founder looks to add accountability, end anarchy". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Archived from the original on October 17, 2007. Retrieved March 25, 2007.
- Lih, p. 137
- Sanger, Larry (April 19, 2005). "The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia, Part II". SourceForge. Slashdot. Archived from the original on November 8, 2006. Retrieved March 25, 2007.
- Lih, p. 136
- Sanger, Larry (March 1, 2002). "My resignation—Larry Sanger". Meta-Wiki. Archived from the original on April 30, 2007. Retrieved March 25, 2007.
- Reagle, p. 6
- Mitchell, Dan (December 24, 2005). "Insider Editing at Wikipedia". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 29, 2015. Retrieved March 25, 2007.
- Hansen, Evan (December 19, 2005). "Wikipedia Founder Edits Own Bio". Wired. Wired News. Archived from the original on May 30, 2012. Retrieved March 25, 2007.
- Bergstein, Brian (March 25, 2007). "Sanger says he co-started Wikipedia". NBCNews.com. Associated Press. Archived from the original on October 5, 2013. Retrieved March 25, 2007.
- dhcp058.246.lvcm.com (signed as RoseParks, a pseudonym of Ifcher's) (January 17, 2001). "LarrySanger". Wikipedia 10K Redux. Joseph Reagle. Archived from the original on August 7, 2019. Retrieved August 7, 2019.
- Sanger, Larry. "My role in Wikipedia (links)". LarrySanger.org. Archived from the original on June 29, 2019. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
- NewsAssignment.net (May 3, 2007). "Assignment Zero First Take: Wiki Innovators Rethink Openness". Wired. Archived from the original on March 28, 2014. Retrieved April 25, 2009.
- Sanger, Larry (April 18, 2005). "The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia: A Memoir". SourceForge. Slashdot. Archived from the original on July 22, 2009. Retrieved March 25, 2007.
- "Wikipedia founder sets up rival". Australian IT. October 19, 2006. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved August 4, 2014.
- Pink, Daniel H. (March 2005). "The Book Stops Here". Wired. Archived from the original on March 4, 2005. Retrieved March 25, 2007.
- Sanger, Larry (December 31, 2004). "Why Wikipedia Must Jettison Its Anti-Elitism". Kuro5hin. Archived from the original on January 5, 2005. Retrieved March 25, 2007.
- Thomson, Iain (April 13, 2007). "Wikipedia 'broken beyond repair' says co-founder". iTnews. Archived from the original on December 22, 2012. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
- Ferraro, Nicole (October 9, 2009). "Wikipedia Co-Founder Speaks Out Against Jimmy Wales". Internet Evolution. UBM LLC. Archived from the original on October 13, 2009. Retrieved October 23, 2013.
- Schwartz, Zach (November 11, 2015). "Wikipedia's Co-Founder Is Wikipedia's Most Outspoken Critic". Vice. Archived from the original on November 14, 2015. Retrieved November 15, 2015.
- "Wikimedia pornography row deepens as Wales cedes rights". BBC News. May 10, 2010. Archived from the original on June 18, 2010. Retrieved May 19, 2010.
- Metz, Cade (May 9, 2010). "Jimbo Wales exiles 'porn' from Wikiland". The Register. Archived from the original on December 3, 2010. Retrieved October 9, 2010.
- Farrell, Nick (April 29, 2010). "Wikipedia denies child abuse allegations: Co-founder grassed the outfit to the FBI". The Inquirer. Archived from the original on October 3, 2012. Retrieved October 9, 2010.
- Chiaramonte, Perry (September 10, 2012). "Exclusive: Wikipedia ignores solution to rampant porn problem". FoxNews.com. Archived from the original on June 18, 2013. Retrieved November 19, 2013.
- Masnick, Mike. "Disgruntled Ex-Wikipedia Guy, Larry Sanger, Accuses Wikipedia Of Distributing Child Porn". TechDirt. Archived from the original on August 17, 2019. Retrieved August 17, 2019.
- Lih, p. 211
- Lih, p. 190
- Anderson, Nate (February 25, 2007). "Citizendium: building a better Wikipedia". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on March 24, 2007. Retrieved March 25, 2007.
- LeClaire, Jennifer (March 27, 2007). "Wikipedia Cofounder Launches Citizendium". NewsFactor Network. Archived from the original on May 16, 2011. Retrieved March 27, 2007.
- Tiwari, Neha (April 5, 2007). "Wikipedia today, Citizendium tomorrow". CNET. Archived from the original on March 4, 2014. Retrieved April 5, 2007.
- Cohen, Jason Z (March 3, 2008). "Citizendium's Larry Sanger: Experts Make It Better". LinuxInsider. ECT News Network. Archived from the original on May 17, 2011. Retrieved March 8, 2008.
- Anderson, Nate (November 21, 2007). "Larry Sanger says "tipping point" approaching for expert-guided Citizendium wiki". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on January 4, 2008. Retrieved November 21, 2007.
- Lee, Timothy B. (October 27, 2011). "Citizendium turns five, but the Wikipedia fork is dead in the water". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on October 23, 2013. Retrieved October 22, 2013.
- Mark Y. Herring (2014). Are Libraries Obsolete?: An Argument for Relevance in the Digital Age (1 ed.). McFarland & Company. p. 52. ISBN 978-0786473564. Archived from the original on April 15, 2015. Retrieved October 3, 2016.
- Citizendium front page Archived October 13, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, accessed August 4, 2016
- Sanger, Larry (July 30, 2009). "[Citizendium-l] My recent absence". Citizendium. Archived from the original on July 20, 2011. Retrieved July 30, 2009.
- Sanger, Larry (September 22, 2010). "Citizendium Charter Ratified". Citizendium blog. Archived from the original on July 25, 2011. Retrieved December 17, 2010.
- Lih, p. 210
- Terdiman, Daniel (January 6, 2006). "Wikipedia's co-founder eyes a Digital Universe". CNET. Archived from the original on August 17, 2013. Retrieved March 25, 2007.
- "Digital Universe Seeks to Become Free 'PBS of the Web'". PR Newswire. Digital Universe. January 17, 2006. Archived from the original on March 2, 2007. Retrieved March 25, 2007.
- "Contributor: Lawrence Sanger". Encyclopedia of Earth. Digital Universe. Archived from the original on January 11, 2009. Retrieved March 25, 2007.
- Terdiman, Daniel (December 19, 2005). "Wikipedia alternative aims to be 'PBS of the Web'". CNET. Archived from the original on January 31, 2016. Retrieved March 25, 2007.
- "About the EoE". Encyclopedia of Earth. Digital Universe. Archived from the original on January 29, 2011. Retrieved March 25, 2007.
- Sawers, Paul (November 19, 2011). "Larry Sanger on co-founding Wikipedia and how online education could change the world". The Next Web. Archived from the original on November 21, 2011. Retrieved January 8, 2011.
- Lei, Owen (October 28, 2011). "CEO hits road to spread word about non-profit 'YouTube for teachers'". King Broadcasting Company. Archived from the original on November 9, 2013. Retrieved November 9, 2013.
- "WatchKnowLearn". EPIC 2020. November 2, 2011. Archived from the original on November 12, 2013. Retrieved October 11, 2013.
- Tomaszewski, Jason (2013). "Site Review: Watch-Know-Learn". Education World. Archived from the original on November 13, 2013. Retrieved November 13, 2013.
- Lee Long, Robert (February 16, 2013). "WatchKnowLearn.org No. 1". Desoto Times Tribune. Retrieved November 9, 2013.
- Sawers, Paul (November 2, 2011). "Wikipedia co-founder launches Reading Bear, an online phonics tutorial for kids". The Next Web, Inc. Archived from the original on May 29, 2013. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
- Morris, Kevin (February 13, 2013). "Wikipedia cofounder Larry Sanger on his next revolution". The Daily Dot. Archived from the original on February 17, 2013. Retrieved February 14, 2013.
- Walker, Lauren (December 16, 2014). "'Wikipedia for News' Becomes Open to the Public". Newsweek. Archived from the original on December 17, 2014. Retrieved December 16, 2014.
- "Infobitt's Future, and Mine". July 8, 2015. Archived from the original on July 9, 2015. Retrieved July 8, 2015.
- Patterson, Dan (December 8, 2017). "Why Wikipedia's cofounder wants to replace the online encyclopedia with the blockchain". TechRepublic. Archived from the original on February 15, 2019.
- Brown, Leah (December 11, 2017). "Why Wikipedia's cofounder wants to replace the online encyclopedia with the blockchain". TechRepublic. Archived from the original on February 15, 2019.
- Larry Sanger (December 12, 2017). "Wikipedia's cofounder on how he's creating a bigger, better rival—on the blockchain". Quartz. Archived from the original on December 16, 2017. Retrieved December 12, 2017.
- Mike Brown (December 6, 2017). "Wikipedia Cofounder Tells Us His Plan to Build Encyclopedia on Bitcoin Tech". Inverse. Archived from the original on December 8, 2017. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
- Leah Brown (December 11, 2017). "Why Wikipedia's cofounder wants to replace the online encyclopedia with the blockchain". TechRepublic. Archived from the original on December 12, 2017. Retrieved December 12, 2017.
- "Wikipedia founder calls for social media strike". July 1, 2019. Archived from the original on July 2, 2019. Retrieved July 2, 2019.
- Sachdeva, Anmol (July 1, 2019). "Unhappy With Social Media? Join Wikipedia Co-Founder In Social Media Strike". Fossbytes. Archived from the original on July 2, 2019. Retrieved July 2, 2019.
- Sanger, Larry. "Introducing the Encyclosphere". Larry Sanger Blog. Larry Sanger. Archived from the original on October 20, 2019. Retrieved October 21, 2019.
- Sanger, Larry (October 18, 2019). "Introducing the Encyclosphere". -Larry Sanger blog. Archived from the original on November 26, 2019. Retrieved November 28, 2019.
- Keen, Andrew (June 2, 2008). "Andrew Keen on New Media". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on June 5, 2008. Retrieved June 8, 2008.
- Aviv, Rachel (January 10, 2006). "Mondo Wikipedia". The Village Voice. Archived from the original on February 18, 2007. Retrieved March 25, 2007.
- Reagle, p. 35
- Anderson, p. 74
- Lih, pp. 210–211
- Carey, Tanith (January 2, 2013). "Can you teach a baby to read?". Independent Online (South Africa). Archived from the original on November 7, 2017. Retrieved October 30, 2017.
- Crovitz, L. Gordon (December 6, 2010). "Julian Assange, Information Anarchist". The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company. Archived from the original on December 17, 2010. Retrieved December 22, 2010.
- Anderson, Jennifer Joline (2011). Wikipedia: The Company and Its Founders (1 ed.). Abdo Group. ISBN 978-1617148125.
- Lih, Andrew (2009). The Wikipedia REVOLUTION: How a Bunch of Nobodies Created the World's Greatest Encyclopedia. New York, New York: Hyperion. ISBN 978-1-4013-0371-6.
- Reagle, Joseph Michael (2010). Good Faith Collaboration: The Culture of Wikipedia (1 ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-01447-2.
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